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- Contents

Chapter 1. Vision
 System Design 

Chapter 2. Biological Eye  Designs

Chapter 3. Eye
 Design Illustrations
A. Plant light sensing
1. Grass, simple vines, 
and stems
2. Flowers
B. Lower animal eyes
1. Flatworms
2. Clams and Scallops 
3. Nautilus
4. Shrimp
5. Crab
6. Octopus and 
   giant squid
7. Spiders
8. Scorpions
8. Brittle Star 
C. Insect eyes 
1. Bees
2. Dragonflies
3. Butterflies
4. Flies
5. Ants
6. Moths
7. Beetles
8. Wasp
D. Fish eyes 
1. Shark
2. Flounder
3. Four-eyed fish 
E. Amphibian eyes
1. Frog
2. Salamander
F. Reptile eyes
1. Boa constrictor 
2. Rattle snake
3. Lizard
4. Turtle
5. Crocodile and 
G. Bird eyes
1. Eagles
2. Hummingbirds
3. Owls
4. Ostrich
5. Cormorants
H. Mammal eyes
1. Whales
2. Elephants
3. Lions, tigers, and 
   other cats
4. Monkeys
5. Rats and mice
6. Bats
7. Tarsier
I. Human eyes
1. Iris
2. Lens
3. Retina
Chapter 4. Eye 
Chapter 5. Optical 
 Systems Design 
Chapter 6. The Eye Designer
Related Links
Appendix A -
Slide Show & Conference Speech
by Curt Deckert

Appendix B - Conference Speech
by Curt Deckert

Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D -
Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy


Chapter 3
Section E
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E. Amphibian eyes
     Most amphibians, such as frogs and salamanders, have color vision, even though they may be restricted to narrower bands of the visible color spectrum than are humans. There are at least four types of photoreceptors or optical sensors with different chemical composition that allow seeing different amounts of color by amphibians. Since amphibians have been around a long time and have adapted to a variety of environments, their eye configurations vary slightly for different environments. Amphibian eyes contain photoreceptors like those of some fish. Some fish are vulnerable to the changes of light intensity as it varies with water depth. There are some amphibians with nearly-complete 360-degree vision. They have a neural mechanism to contract their pupils, like some species of fish. The following are a few examples of amphibian eyes.

1. Frog
     Frogs have an interesting iris for light control in each eye. Frogs have many different shapes of the iris defining the pupils. They may be heart, pear, round or oval shaped,  with each shape unique to a particular design of frog. Frogs can adjust their focus to both near and far images. This is further evidence of diverse, yet specific, purposeful design. They also have special movable eye socket arrangements for looking around to detect predators and food. Their socket arrangements are somewhat similar to the design of military optics mounted on aircraft. Some frogs' eyes are large and disproportional in size with respect to their bodies. Tadpoles have smaller eyes that see limited color. Variations in the color of frogs' eye come from pigment differences in each type of frog. 
fig3-29-old-red-eye-TN.jpg Red Frog Eyes 175x129
Figure 3.29 Red Frog 
Eyes. (By Bruce Chambers)
fig3-29bTN.jpg Red Frog Eyes 165x91
Fig 3.29b Red Frog Eyes
p 02 Reptiles & Amphibians
fig3-29c-java-TN.jpg Java Whipping Frog Eyes 165x105
Figure 3.29c Java 
Whipping Frog Eyes, 
p. 05 Reptiles & Amphibians
fig3-30TN.jpg Common Frog Eyes 300x211
Figure 3.30 Common Frog 
Eyes, p 325, Exploring 
the Secrets of Nature
1994, Readers Digest)
fig3-30b-tomato-TN.jpg Tomato Frog Eyes 175x112
Figure 3.30b 
Tomato Frog Eyes, p. 07
Reptiles & Amphibians
fig3-30c-polka-dot-tree-TN.jpg Polka Dot Tree Frog Eyes 300x211
Figure 3.30c Polka Dot 
Tree Frog Eyes, p. 11
Reptiles & Amphibians

2. Salamander
      Although salamander’s eyes are considered primitive, they are not necessarily less complicated than eyes of invertebrates. Salamanders  range from one inch to 60 inches long. Some salamanders have proportionally large eyes.
      The photoreceptors of their retinas are larger and fewer than those of many creatures. This means that images seen by a salamander will lack the fine detail many larger creatures can see. Their eyes can be brilliantly colored along with their bodies, indicating specific artistic design integration with their overall unique design. (Figure 3.31 from p 217, Readers Digest, Exploring the Secrets of Nature, 1994 fig3-31TN.jpg Salamander Eyes 300x198
Figure 3.31 Salamander Eyes.
fig3-31b-alta-TN.jpg Alta Verapaz Salamander Eyes 300x207
Figure 3.31b 
Alta Verapaz Salamander Eyes
p 18, Reptiles & Amphibians
fig3-31c-boulanger-TN.jpg Boulanger's Oriental Salamander Eyes 300x211
Figure 3.31c 
Boulanger's Oriental 
Salamander Eyes 
p 19b, Reptiles & Amphibians

     (Figures 3.29 through 3.31 for frogs and salamanders from Reptiles & Amphibians, used by permission of the photographer and copyright owner Ryu Uchiyama, and the publisher, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, CA 94105)

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Related Links
Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy
Table of All Figures



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