Eye Design Book
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Eye Figures
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 A Simplified Man-made Image System
Figure 1.2Typical Eye for a Biological Vision System
Figure 1.3 A Typical Man-made Vision System
Figure 1.4a-b Spectral Coverage of Human Eyes
Figure 1.5a-c Iris Design Variations for Camera Eye
Figure 1.6 Iris Regulating Light - Different Apertures.
Figure 1.7a-b Retina Layers
Figure 1.8  Stereo Vision curvature at sev distances
Figure 1.9 Tiger's Eye - Light Reflected To Source

Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 Camera Type Optical Design variations
Figure 2.2a-b Example of Camera Eye 
Figure 2.3 Cross Section of Human Retina
Figure 2.4 Rod and Cone Details
Figure 2.5 Pinhole Optical Design
Figure 2.6 Pinhole Eye of Nautilus
Figure 2.7 Concave Mirror Optical Design.
Figure 2.8 Concave Mirror Design in Scallop Eyes
Figure 2.9 Apposition Compound Eye Design
Figure 2.10 Example of Apposition Compound Eyes
Figure 2.11 Neural Superposition Eye
Figure 2.12a-b Apposition Neural-Superposition
Figure 2.13 Refraction Superposition eye design
Figure 2.14 Refracted Superposition Moth Eye
Figure 2.15 Detail of Moth Eye Facets 
Figure 2.16 Reflective Superposition Optical Design
Figure 2.17 Reflective-Superposition Eyes of a Crayfish
Figure 2.18 Parabolic Superposition Optical Design
Figure 2.19 Parabolic Superposition Eyes - Hermit Crab
Figure 2.20 Parabolic Superposition Eyes - Mayfly

Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 Branching filaments of fungus on skin
Figure 3.2 Grass and Vine
Figure 3.3 Flowers
Figure 3.5 Scallop Eyes
Figure 3.6 Nautilus Eye
Figure 3.7 Shrimp Eyes.
Figure 3.8a Hermit Crab Eyes.
Figure 3.8b Crab Eyes.
Figure 3.9a-b Octopus Eyes.
Figure 3.10a Typical Spider Eyes.
Figure 3.10b Jumping Spider Eyes.
Figure 3.10c Casting Spider Eyes.
Figure 3.10d Spider Eyes.
Figure 3.11 Scorpion
Figure 3.12b-f Brittle Star
Figure 3.13 Bee Eyes
Figure 3.14 Dragonfly Eyes Figure
Figure 3.15 Damselfly Eyes.
Figure 3.16a-c Butterfly Eyes.
Figure 3.17a Fly Eye Example
Figure 3.17b-i Fly Eyes
Figure 3.18 Ant Eyes
Figure 3.19a,c Ant Eye detail
Figure 3.19b Black Ant Eyes
Figure 3.20 Moth eye Detail
Figure 3.21 Moth Eye 
Figure 3.22 Moth's Eye showing Anti-reflective Surface
Figure 3.23a-b Beetle Eyes
Figure 3.23c Wasp Eyes
Figure 3.24 Cross Section of a Typical Shark Eye
Figure 3.25 Horn Shark Eye
Figure 3.26 Blue Shark Eye
Figure 3.27 Flounder Eyes.
Figure 3.27a Flounder Eyes in sand
Figure 3.28 "Four-eyed Fish Eyes."
Figure 3.29 Red Frog Eyes.
Figure 3.30 Common Frog Eyes
Figure 3.31 Salamander Eyes.
Figure 3.32 Boa Constrictor Eyes and IR vision systems
Figure 3.33 Rattlesnake Eyes and IR vision systems
Figure 3.34 Lizard Eyes
Figure 3.35 Gecko Lizard Eyes
Figure 3.36 Turtle Eyes.
Figure 3.37 Alligator Eyes.
Figure 3.38 Eagle Eyes.
Figure 3.39 Hummingbird Eyes.
Figure 3.40a-b Owl Eyes
Figure 3.41 Optical Cross section of Owl Eyes
Figure 3.42 Ostrich Eyes
Figure 3.43 Cormorant Eyes.
Figure 3.43f Falcon Eyes.
Figure 3.44a-b Human Eye as Typical Mammal Eye
Figure 3.45 Section of Whale Eyes.
Figure 3.46a-b Picture of Whale Eyes
Figure 3.47 Elephant Eye
Figure 3.48 Cat Eye Diagram
Figure 3.49. Lion & Tiger Eyes
Figure 3.50 Larger Monkey Eyes relative to body
Figure 3.51 Smaller Monkey Eyes relative to body
Figure 3.52 Mouse Eyes.
Figure 3.53 Bat Eyes.
Figure 3.54 Tarsier Eyes-with large iris opening
Figure 3.55 Tarsier Eyes-with small iris opening
Figure 3.56a-b Levels of Sensor Cells in the Retina
Figure 3.57a-c Human Eye Diagram
Figure 3.58a-b Human Iris Mechanism
Figure 3.59a-c Human Retina diagram
Figure 3.60a-b Human Retina diagram - rods and cones
Figure 3.61a-b Human Retina

Eye Figures
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Biological Vision Design Diagram
Figure 4.2 Possible Optical Vision Design Alternatives
Figure 4.3 Cell Architecture for vision system 
Figure 4.4 Structural size of cells
Figure 4.5 Functions Needed for Vision to Take Place Figure 4.6 Eye Model In focus for high resolution
Figure 4.7 Spots for small star images - center focus
Figure 4.8 Spot for small star images  - lens 2 mm error
Figure 4.9 Eye out of focus to illustrate a 2 mm error
Figure 4.10 Vision Systems for Intelligent Machines
Figure 4.11 Cells (100 microns field of view) of skin
Figure 4.12 White blood cell (10 microns field of view)
Figure 4.13 Inside cell (1 micron field)
Figure 4.14 Inside cell nucleus (0.1 micron field) -DNA
Figure 4.15 Cell nucleus (0.01 micron field) - DNA
Figure 4.16 Cell nucleus (0.001 micron field) - DNA

Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Historic Optics 
Figure 5.2 Historic Optics
Figure 5.3 Historic Optics-Early microscope
Figure 5.4 Modern Optics-Microscope Design
Figure 5.5 Modern Confocal Laser Scan Microscope
Figure 5. 6 Modern - 1m Mirror telescope
Figure 5.7 Stable Platform for Optical Systems
Figure 5.8 Typical Camera Lens Optical Design
Figure 5.9 Typical Meniscus Camera Lens Design
Figure 5.10 Typical Telephoto Camera Lens Design
Figure 5.11 Hubble telescope Optical Diagram
Figure 5.12 Information concentration center of eye
Figure 5.13. Neural Robotic Vision System Diagram
Figure 5.14 Camera Electronic Interface for Vision
Figure 5.15 Robotic Insects (NASA)
Figure 5.16 Insect Robot - controls attached to insect
Figure 5.17 Insect Robot - controls attached to insect
Figure 5.18 Diagram of Borescope (Olympus)
Figure 5.19 Endoscope Diagram
Figure 5.20 Atomic Force Microscope - optical coating
Figure 5.21 Wasp Parasite - Electronbeam Microscope
Figure 5.22. Vision Systems beyond optical function
Figure 5.23 Artificial retina inserted as part of retina
Figure 5.24 Toward an artificial eye
Figure 5.25 Implanted Array in the retina and Camera
Figure 5.26a-f Visual Stimuli along the visual pathway
Figure 5.27 Cell Replacement Concept
Figure 5.28 Network structures - applications to vision

Chapter 6
Figure 6.1a-b Camera lens eye diagram of Human Eye
Figure 6.2 Pinhole Eye Diagram
Figure 6.3 Concave Mirror Eye Diagram
Figure 6.4 Apposition eye Facet - Index of Refraction
Figure 6.5 Neural Superposition Eye Diagram
Figure 6.6 Refraction Superposition Eye Design
Figure 6.7 Reflection Superposition Eye Design
Figure 6.8 Parabolic Superposition Compound Design
Figure 6.9 Diverse group of Eyes
Figure 6.10 Trilobite Eyes
Figure 6.11 Digital Camera on a Chip
Figure 6.12 Electronic boards - small sensor chips
Figure 6.13 Part of a Frog brain (R) and eye (L)
Figures 6.14a-b Variety of Eye Mountings
Figure 6.15 Iris Health Diagram Model for Right eye
Figure 6.16 Iris Health Diagram Model for Left eye
Figure 6.17 Moth's eye surface (shown at over 2000X)
Figure 6.17b Brittlestar Optical Design
Figure 6.18 Optical Processing in Insect Vision. 
Figure 6.19 Eyes of a parasite that lives inside a wasp
Figure 6.20 Detail of Parasite eyes - inside a wasp
Figure 6.21 3D Gradient variation - index of refraction
Figure 6.22 Rays from a 3D Gradient index variation

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Related Links
Appendix A - Conference Slide Show and Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Table of All Figures
CD Starting Page - Scenes of Amazing Beauty

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